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Referencing

APA (American Psychological Association) style

The APA style was developed by the American Psychological Association. It is widely used in the sciences and social sciences.

APA uses the author-date system.

In-text citation:

It consists mainly of the authors' last name and the year of publication (and page numbers if it is directly quoted) in round brackets and placed within the text. If there is no discernable author, the title and date are used.

Reference list:

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. Use full stops and spaces between the initials. Last name comes first.

Here is an example that cites a book with one author using APA style.

In-text citation

Reference list

.....(Neville, 2010) or Neville (2010) stated that " ....." (p. 25).

Neville, C. (2010). The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Open University Press.

Watch: Citing references in text

This is an Academic Writer production published in 2019. This quick tutorial shows how to do the in-text citation in APA style. Click on the image to start:

 

Citing References in Text

Learn how to cite references in the text, including how to implement the basic formats, cite multiple works, achieve clarity, and format references with missing author and/or date information.

Academic Writer

© 2016 American Psychological Association.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Tutorial

If you're just starting out, view the tutorial on APA Style Basics. If you are already familiar with APA Style, view the What's New in the Sixth Edition which provides an overview of key changes in the Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual. Both of them are produced by the American Psychological Association.

Quick guide and examples

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the APA 6th ed referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

APA Style blog

APA Style experts publish weekly posts to talk about  APA Style and how it works in a variety of topics.

Have troubles with citing a format? Search the blog for assistance.

How to cite an ebook?

The following information has been drawn from the APA Style Blog.

In-text citation:

Paraphrased material: author and date

Direct quotation: author, date and  page numbers if the ebook has page numbers. If there are NO page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:

  • a paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you can count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document;
  • an overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section; or
  • an abbreviated heading (or the first few words of the heading) in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.

Reference list:

The references for a whole ebook: author, date, italicise the title with ereader book type or model (Amazon, Kindle, Microsoft, Adobe Digital Editions, Sony etc) in square brackets if applicable; and source (URL or DOI).

If the book was read through an online library (Google Books, ProQuest Ebook Central, ebrary, NetLibrary) and not on an ereader device, omit the bracketed information from the reference.

·         Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [Ereader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

·         Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book [Ereader version, if applicable]. doi: xxxxx

The references for a chapter in an edited ebook: author, date, italicise the title with ereader book type or model (Amazon, Kindle, Microsoft, Adobe Digital Editions, Sony etc) in square brackets if applicable; and source (URL or DOI).

If the ebook chapter does not have page numbers, omit that part of the reference.

·         Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [Ereader version, if applicable] (pp. xxx–xxx). Retrieved from http://xxxxx

·         Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [Ereader version, if applicable] (pp. xxx–xxx). doi:xxxxx

APA style guide

If you require further information, consult the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Printed copies of this guide are available at the Library.

Style manuals

Abbreviations

Standard abbreviations may be used in citations.

A list of acceptable, commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., p. 180.

Some of the more often used examples are listed here:

chap. Chapter
ed. Edition
Ed.(Eds.) Editor(s)
et al. and others (from Latin et alii, et aliae)
n.d. No date of publication
No. Number
p. (pp.) Page(s)
para. Paragraph
Pt. Part
Rev. ed. Revised edition
Suppl. Supplement
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Trans. Translator(s)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
vols. Volumes (as in 4 vols.)

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote X9 for PC

 EndNote X9 for Mac

 Mendeley

You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.
 

EndNote and Mendeley training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Research Librarian for a session.


Watch these videos to give youself an idea on how to get started: