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Referencing in more detail

Use this guide to find out more detail on referencing basics and some of the specific styles, such as MLA, APA, Chicago and more.

You might like to look at this guide also, for general MLA style. 

Citations and Referencing

Use the tabs above to see some quick reference examples in MLA style. The link in the right hand box titled "Conventions for English Papers" provides more detailed help and guidance. 

Some of the major referencing styles include Chicago, APA, Harvard and MLA. There are dozens more.

Your citation will look different depending what referencing style you use. 

Print books

Here is a sample using MLA style referencing. 

Clarke, Kenneth Patrick. Chaucer and Italian Textuality / K.P. Clarke. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2011. Print. Oxford English Monographs.

Two or three authors:

Booth, Wayne, C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.


In general, the citation of an ebook begins the same as the printed work and ends with a designation of the medium of publication. The medium is the type of electronic file, such as Kindle file, Nook file, EPUB file, or PDF file. You can use 'Digital file' if you cannot identify the file type.

For example:

Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. New York: Farrar, 2010. Kindle file.

Most electronic readers include a numbering system that tells users their location in the work. Do not cite this numbering, because it may not appear consistently to other users. If the work is divided into stable numbered sections like chapters, the numbers of those sections may be cited.

Book Chapter

Here is a sample using MLA style referencing. 

Orwell, George. "Shooting an elephant."  Inside the Whale and Other Essays, George Orwell,

Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books in association with Secker and Warburg, 1966, pp. 91-99.


Kies, Bridget. "Literary Culture Inside and Outside Jane Austen's 'Pride and Prejudice'."

International Journal of the Book, Vol.10, no. 3, 2013, pp.27-32


Miller, Toby. Australian Citizenship, 1912: A Model for the World?, 2013 Sir Walter Murdoch Lecture. Murdoch University, 2013,

Radio program:

“Black Hole Stellar feeding frenzy.” StarStuff, reported by Stuart Gary, 23 Dec. 2007, ABC News Radio,


MLA style guide

If you require further information, consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing or the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Printed copies of these guides are available at the Library.

Bibliographic Referencing Software

Keeping your references well organised can be tricky but there are tools to help you stay on top of it all. EndNote and Mendeley are two products that the Library can help you access and use. Click on the link below to learn more;


References to books, book chapters, journal articles and other sources are called citations. These include information needed to find the full text of a publication.

Citation Style:
The citation style determines how the citation information is ordered, what punctuation is needed, and any other formatting that is required. Examples of citation styles include APA, Harvard and MLA etc.

A bibliography is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you used to produce your assignment, including those you did not quote or paraphrase.

Reference List: 
A reference list is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you have quoted or paraphrased in your assignment.

Annotated Bibliography: 
An annotated bibliography is also a list of citations but each citation is followed by an annotation (a brief [usually about 150 words] descriptive and evaluative paragraph to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited). Check out the Annotated bibliography page by the University of New South Wales for further details.

Literature review: 
A literature review is an evaluative report of information found within the body of an essay, paper, article, book or book chapter related to your selected area of study. Check out Getting Started on your Literature Review by University of New South Wales for further details.