Skip to main content


Types of Citations

Example of a book citation

Potter, R et al. (2008) Geographies of development: an introduction to development studies. New York : Prentice Hall. 

This citation consists of the author’s name, the year of publication, the title of the book, and the publisher details.

Example of a book chapter citation

Shaw, Dennis (2008), “Pre-capitalist worlds” in An introduction to human geography : issues for the 21st century, Daniels, P., Bradshaw, M., Shaw, D. & Sidaway, J. (eds), Harlowe : Prentice Hall, pp. 18-38.

This citation consists of the author of the chapter, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the title of the bookthe editor(s) of the book, the publication details of the book and the pagination of the chapter.

Example of a journal article citation

Melchert, L (2005) “The Age of Environmental Impasse? Globalization and Environmental Transformation of Metropolitan Cities.” Development and Change, 36(5), pp. 803-823.

This citation consists of the author of the article, the year of publication, the title of the article, the title of the journal that the article is published in, and the publication details (volume, issue and pages).

Example of a conference paper citation

Wright, S, Suchet-Pearson, S, Lloyd, K & Burarrwanga, L 2008 Weaving together: Participation and change in North East Arnhem Land, Australia. Paper presented at the Connecting People, Participation and Place conference, Durham, 14-15 January.

This citation consists of the author(s) of the paper, the year the conference was held, the title of the paper, and the name, location and date of the conference.

Understanding citations

Most of the material that you will need to refer to during your studies will be in one of the following categories:

  •  Books
  •  Chapters in books
  •  Journal articles
  •  Conference papers

References to these information sources are called citations. The citation for each format looks slightly different. Recognising the different citation formats is important because this will affect how you search for the item.