Most of the material that you will need to refer to during your studies will be in one of the following categories:
References to these information sources are called citations. The citation for each format looks slightly different. Recognising the different citation formats is important because this will affect how you search for the item.
Your citation will look different depending what referencing style you use.
Some of the major referencing styles include Chicago, APA, Harvard and MLA. There are dozens more.
|This citation consists of the author’s name, the year of publication, the title of the book, and the publisher details.|
|Horkheimer, Max, (2013), “The Revolt of Nature” in Eclipse of Reason, New York, Bloomsbury Publishing , Ch 3, pp. 65 - 89.|
|This citation consists of the author of the chapter, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the title of the book, , the publication details of the book and the pagination of the chapter.|
Book chapter in an edited book:
|Rawls, J. (2016) Mill : The Principle of Liberty. In K. Gjesdal (Ed.), Debates in Ninteenth-Century European Philosophy. New York; London, Routledge, Ch.15 pp.185 - 196.|
This citation consists of the author of the chapter, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the editor of the book, title of the book, the publication details of the book and the pagination of the chapter.
|Formosa, Paul (2013) "Evils, wrongs and dignity: How to test a theory of evil"|
|This citation consists of Author surname; author first name or initial(s); year of issue of journal; title of article (in inverted commas); name of journal (in italics); volume number; article pages.|
Conference Papers / Proceedings:
|Pasin, M., Motta, E., & Zdrahal, Z. (2007) Capturing Knowledge about Philosophy: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Knowledge Capture. Whistler, Canada (pp.47-54) New York, NY, USA, Association for Computing Machinery. doi>10.1145/1298406.1298416|
|This citation shows the authors of the conference paper, the year, the title of the paper (in italics) title of conference, location of conference, page numbers, place of publication, publisher and DOI (If available).|
Gelonesi, J. 2017, Wine: a matter of taste? on The Philosopher's Zone, ABC Radio, viewed 31 July 2017, https://radio.abc.net.au/programitem/peWD0lZm7D?play=true
|This citation consists of the Author Surname, Initial(s) Year, Title of podcast/vodcast, podcast/vodcast, Publisher (if applicable), Place of Publication (if applicable), viewed Day, Month Year, <URL>.|
References to books, book chapters, journal articles and other sources are called citations. These include information needed to find the full text of a publication.
The citation style determines how the citation information is ordered, what punctuation is needed, and any other formatting that is required. Examples of citation styles include APA, Harvard and MLA etc.
A bibliography is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you used to produce your assignment, including those you did not quote or paraphrase.
A reference list is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you have quoted or paraphrased in your assignment.
An annotated bibliography is also a list of citations but each citation is followed by an annotation (a brief [usually about 150 words] descriptive and evaluative paragraph to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited). Check out the Annotated bibliography page by the University of New South Wales for further details.
A literature review is an evaluative report of information found within the body of an essay, paper, article, book or book chapter related to your selected area of study. Check out Getting Started on your Literature Review by University of New South Wales for further details.
This guide has been developed specifically by the Philosophy Department at Macquarie University, so it is important reading for you.
The guide below includes examples of the styles most commonly used at Macquarie University. It is common practice to use Chicago and Harvard style, however the Philosophy department is happy for you to use any style as long as you're consistent.
What is academic integrity and why is it so important? How can you make sure you are practising academic honesty? The Academic Integrity for Students iLearn unit will teach you about this important aspect of university. Click on the link below and self-enrol in this community unit.