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Clinical Science

Vancouver Referencing Style

This style is commonly used in medicine and science and uses a numbered system. 

In the body of the essay/text, there are consecutively numbered references. At the end of the essay, there is a numbered reference list in the order cited in the essay/text.

Vancouver citation style: Example text

Stroke is one of the leading causes of chronic disability and death worldwide, with the incidence progressively increasing with age.  On a positive note, stroke death rates in Australia fell by 70% between 1979 and 2010. 1

Statins are a class of drugs that reduce the levels of lipids in the blood. In several trials, statins have been shown to reduce the risk of having a first or recurrent ischemic stroke. 2 3 The preventive actions of statins in patients have been mainly explained by the lipid-lowering effect theory. 4


1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Stroke death rates drop 70% in 30 years [Internet]. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 2013 [cited 2015 Oct 20]. Available from:

2. Arnan M, Burke G, Bushnell C. Secondary prevention of stroke in the elderly: focus on drug therapy. Drugs Aging [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Oct 26]; 31(10):721-730. Available from:

3. Nassief A, Marsh J. Statin therapy for stroke prevention. Stroke [Internet]. 2008 [cited 2015 Oct 23]; 39(3):1042-1048. Available from:

4. Yassine H. editor. Lipid management: from basics to clinic [Internet]. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. [cited 2015 Oct 20]. Available from:


Further guides for an overview of the Vancouver referencing style

Bibliographic Management Software

You can use Bibliographic referencing software to maintain your references. This software can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

Macquarie University has a licence for two bibliographic management software packages EndNote and Mendeley:


EndNoteX9 icon EndNote

Mendeley Mendeley