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Media, Music, Dance & Performance, Cultural Studies

Citations and Referencing

Most of the material that you will need to refer to during your studies will be in one of the following categories:

  •  Books
  •  Chapters in books
  •  Journal articles
  •  Conference papers

References to these information sources are called citations. The citation for each format looks slightly different. Recognising the different citation formats is important because this will affect how you search for the item.

Your citation will look different depending what referencing style you use. Some of the major referencing styles include Chicago, APA, Harvard and MLA. There are dozens more. When citing, your citation should follow the recommended format according to the citation style that you are using. Refer to the Macquarie University Library Referencing Guide  for further information.



De Block, L., & Buckingham, David. (2007). Global children, global media : Migration, media and childhood / Liesbeth De Block and David Buckingham. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

This citation consists of the author’s name, the year of publication, the title of the book, and the publisher details.

Book chapter:

Shaw, Dennis (2008), “Pre-capitalist worlds” in An introduction to human geography : issues for the 21st century, Daniels, P., Bradshaw, M., Shaw, D. & Sidaway, J. (eds), Harlowe : Prentice Hall, pp. 18-38.

This citation consists of the author of the chapter, the year of publication, the title of the chapter, the title of the book, the editor(s) of the book, the publication details of the book and the pagination of the chapter.

Kepplinger, H., Geiss, S., & Siebert, S. (2012). Framing Scandals: Cognitive and Emotional Media Effects. Journal of Communication, 62(4), 659-681.

This citation consists of  the authors, the year published, the title of the article, the Journal name in Italics, the volume and the issue in brackets, and finally the page numbers. 

For podcasts, or vodcasts, provide as much information as possible; not all of the following information will be available. Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc.

Example of a podcast/ vodcast citation:

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (Producer), & Uhlmann, C. (Presenter). (2017, August 27). Insiders -  Full Program [TV Broadcast]. Retrieved from

This citation (using APA style) consists of the Author - Producer & Presenter's name, (Year, Month, Day), Title - italicised, [Type of Media], . Retrieved from - Web Address URL.

Licensing and Creative Commons

When you are adding images, videos and other content that you did not create to your presentation, it is important to make sure that you are not violating anyone's copyright. There are two ways to do this:

  • find public domain content for your presentations. Works in the public domain may be used freely without the permission of the former copyright owner. However, it is advisable to provide attribution for the work, or keep a record of the attribution of the work, so that you or other interested parties can find it later.
  • use Creative Commons (CC) licenced content, as long as you ensure that you correctly attribute the content to it's creator and meet the terms of the licence under which the media is offered. CC licences allow the creator of the work to select how they want others to use the work. When a creator releases their work under a CC licence, members of the public know what they can and can’t do with the work. This means that they only need to seek the creator’s permission when they want to use the work in a way not permitted by the licence.

Here are some Creative Commons sites:

Referencing at Macquarie

This is a detailed guide on referencing, the styles, and examples of each.


References to books, book chapters, journal articles and other sources are called citations. These include information needed to find the full text of a publication.

Citation Style:
The citation style determines how the citation information is ordered, what punctuation is needed, and any other formatting that is required. Examples of citation styles include APA, Harvard and MLA etc.

A bibliography is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you used to produce your assignment, including those you did not quote or paraphrase.

Reference List: 
A reference list is a complete list of all the sources (books, journal articles, websites etc) you have quoted or paraphrased in your assignment.

Annotated Bibliography: 
An annotated bibliography is also a list of citations but each citation is followed by an annotation (a brief [usually about 150 words] descriptive and evaluative paragraph to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited). Check out the Annotated bibliography page by the University of New South Wales for further details.

Literature review: 
A literature review is an evaluative report of information found within the body of an essay, paper, article, book or book chapter related to your selected area of study. Check out Getting Started on your Literature Review by University of New South Wales for further details.