Skip to Main Content


JAMA Style

The JAMA (or AMA) citation style is used by the Department of Health Sciences (Physiotherapy). JAMA uses a numbered system of referencing, and is based upon the AMA Manual of Style.

In-text citation:

References are indicated by the use of a number in the order of appearance in the article. Superscripted Arabic numbers are used for in-text citations.

Reference list:

Displayed at the end of the article, providing full details of all references cited in-text. References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text (not in alphabetical order).

The JAMA style requires:

  • Use of only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stop and space between the initials. Last name comes first.
  •  All author and/or editor names are listed if there are less than 6; if more than 6, list the first 3 followed by “et al.”
  • Journal names are abbreviated according to the journal list in PubMed (or via the searchable NLM catalogue), and the issue number appears in parentheses after the volume number.

Examples using JAMA style

Resource type In-text citation Reference list
Book Frontera1 states that... 1. Frontera WR. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. London: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
Journal article Ahmed et al2 have identified... 2. Ahmad O, Rowe DB. Adult-onset Alexander’s disease mimicking degenerative disease. Pract Neurol. 2015;15(5):393-395.
Thesis The research is supported by Liangl3... 3.Liang L. Biofunctional upconversion nanoparticles for cancer theranostics [PhD Thesis], Sydney, Australia : Macquarie University; 2016.
Conference paper This was amply demonstrated 4...  4. Milne J, Greenfield D, Braithwaite J. Interprofessional practice: what does it mean to doctors? Paper presented at 5th Annual Emerging Health Policy Research Conference: Menzies Centre for Health Policy; August 11, 2010; University of Sydney.
Website can be found online 5...  5. Australia's hospitals 2014–15 at a glance.  Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Web site. Accessed May 24, 2017.
Government report NSW Health's strategic plans 6... 6. Health System Planning and Investment. NSW State Health Plan: Towards 2021. North Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health; 2014.

Quick guides

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the JAMA referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

Resources for the JAMA style

This style requires you to display abbreviated journal names in your bibliography. However, the abbreviations are not always included when references are exported from databases such as Medline or Embase.

Term lists maintain consistency of author names, keywords and journal titles.

EndNote's term list feature enables you to import a subject term list of your choice, so that the abbreviations will automatically appear in your reference list.

Related Referencing Guides/Tools