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Referencing generative AI (e.g. ChatGPT)

When generative artificial intelligence (such as ChatGPT) is permitted in your units, you should act with academic integrity and reference any such tools you have used.

Academic libraries across Australia currently suggest two possible referencing strategies for these tools: non-recoverable sources or software.

  • Non-recoverable sources: if the content cannot be saved or a similar search would generate a different result, then the content should be treated as a non-recoverable source, such as a personal communication (see examples from University of Queensland Library following this approach).
  • Software and apps: if a search strategy can be saved or search terms/prompts can be listed, reference the output under software (see examples from University of Wollongong Library following this approach).

Decide which of these strategies matches your needs and use the closest format within your required citation style.

We recommend checking back regularly for updates.

Last updated 24 Feb 2023

Harvard (Author-Date) style

The Harvard referencing style is another popular style using the author-date system for in-text citations.

In-text citation:

It consists mainly of the authors' last name and the year of publication (and page numbers if it is directly quoted) in round brackets placed within the text. If there is no discernable author, the title and date are used.

Reference list:

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stop and space between the initials. Last name comes first.

Here is an example that cites a book with one author using Harvard style.

In-text citation

Reference list

.....(Neville 2010) or Neville (2010, p. 25) stated that.....

Neville, C 2010, The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, Open University Press, New York.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Quick guides and examples

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the Harvard referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

How to cite ABS sources

Harvard style guide

If you require further information, consult the Style manual for authors, editors and printers. A printed copy of this guide is available at the Library.

SAGE Harvard style

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote 20 for Windows

 EndNote 20 for Mac


You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

EndNote training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Faculty Librarian for a session.