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Oxford style

Oxford style uses a note citation system. It is also referred to as a documentary-note system. It has two components:

In-text citation: consists of two parts:

A superscript number in the text

A note at the bottom of the page (footnote). Notes are numbered sequentially, beginning with 1 in superscript, throughout each article, chapter, or paper.

Author's given name or initial before the last name (e.g. John Smith) then cites the title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, the page reference. If you refer to the same work again in the footnotes, use only the author's last name and the page number(s). If you refer to more than one work by the same author, use the author's last name then a short title and page number(s).

ibid. is used to indicate that the previous reference has been used again.

Direct quotations should be enclosed with single quotation marks.

Reference list:

References are listed in alphabetical order by the author's last name. If you have cited more than one work by the same author, you should arrange them by date. References with no author are ordered in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. Use full stops with no spaces between the initials. Last name comes first.

Here is an example that cites the book with one author using Oxford style.

In-text citation

Reference list


1 C Neville, The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edn, Open University Press, New York, 2010, p. 25

Neville, C, The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism, 2nd edn, Open University Press, New York, 2010.

Quick guide and examples

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the Oxford referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

Using generative artificial intelligence tools (e.g. Chat GPT)

Oxford style guide

Available in print in the Library.

Style guides provide detailed advice on referencing plus much more, such as writing and publishing in your discipline.

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote 20 for Windows

 EndNote 20 for Mac


You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

EndNote training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Faculty Librarian for a session.