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IEEE Referencing

IEEE basics

In-text citations:

  • The first time a source appears in the work, it is given a number. 
  • The source retains this same number throughout the paper.
  • The number appears on the line, in square brackets, inside the punctuation [#].
  • When each source is cited for the first time it is given the next number in the sequence.
  • Use et al. when three or more names are given for a reference cited in the text.
  • Cite only one reference per number
  • If citing a range of references (e.g. numbers 1-4), include all the numbers, e.g.  [1], [2] ,[3], [4].



As shown by [1]...

Smith [2] and Brown and Jones [3] explain that...

Wood et al. [4]...

As mentioned earlier [2], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8]... 


  • References are listed next to their assigned number, in number order.
  • The numbers are in square brackets and left-aligned in a column separate from the body of the reference.
  • If there are two authors, there is no comma after the first author.
  • If there are more than six names listed, use the primary author’s name followed by et al.
  • Use company/organisation name if author is unavailable.
  • Omit [Online]. Available: URL if citing a physical item.
  • All references, including those ending with DOIs, will end with a period (full-stop). The only exception is those ending with a URL
  • Do not combine references. There must be only one reference with each number.


Example Reference List

[1]   J. Akram, M. Umair, R. H. Jhaveri, M. N. Riaz, H. Chi and S. Malebary, "Chained-drones: Blockchain-based privacy-preserving framework for secure and intelligent service provisioning in internet of drone things," Computers and Electrical Engineering, vol. 110, no. 108772, Sep. 2023, doi:10.1016/j.compeleceng.2023.108772. [Online]. Available:

[2]   M. A. Taylor, “Exploring inferential analysis,” in Information System Research: Fundamentals of Scientific Research for the Consumer, New York, NY, USA: Momentum Press, 2017, ch. 8, pp. 127-137. [Online]. Available:

[3]   D. Donoho, “50 years of data science,” J. Comput. and Graphical Statist., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 745–766, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1080/10618600.2017.1384734.

[4]   Australian Bureau of Statistics, Energy Use and Electricity Generation, Australia, 2017-18 (cat. no. 4660.0). Canberra: ABS, 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 7, 2019].

[5]   Australian Government Department of Climate Change, Energy, the Environment and Water, Jan. 2024, "Energy Rating Data for Household Appliances: Labelled Products," Canberra, Australia: Australian Government. [Online]. Available:

[6]   M. Ward, Presenter, and Oliver Christie, Speaker, “Artificial intelligence for good,” The Disruptors: The future of all of us, Nov. 14, 2018. United States: The Disruptors. [Podcast]. Available: [Accessed: Aug. 4, 2019].

[7]   J. Aston, private communication, Jul. 2018.

[8]   Bridge design – Part 1: Scope and general principles, AS 5100.1:2017, 2017. [Online]. Available:

[9]   TEDx Talks, Sydney, Australia. The Promise and Peril of Our Quantum Future: Craig Costello. (Jul. 15, 2019). Accessed: Aug. 12, 2021. [Online Video]. Available:

[10] S. G. Kochan, Programming in C. NJ, USA: Addison-Wesley, 2015.

The IEEE Style requires certain information in a Reference list to be abbreviated. This page lists some of these standard abbreviations. The IEEE Reference Guide 2023 provides further information and is referred to throughout this page.

Month Abbreviations

  • IEEE abbreviations for each month are: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.
  • Journals issued every two months (i.e. Bimonthly): Aug./Sept. 2023
  • Journals issued every four months (i.e. Quarterly): July–Sept. 2023

Word Abbreviations

  • Refer to section IV (pp. 22-26) of the IEEE Reference Guide 2023 for common abbreviated words used in IEEE.

Journal Title Abbreviations

Refer to List of IEEE Journal/Magazine Titles, Internal Acronym, and Reference Abbreviation for a list of journal abbreviations.

You can also use the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool to find the official Journal abbreviations. 

Tips for abbreviating periodical titles in references:

  • Words ending in "-ology" can be ended after the "-ol." e.g., Gastroenterology --> Gastrooceanenterol.; Endocrinology --> Endocrinol.
  • Words ending in "-graphy" can be ended after the "-gr." e.g., Oceanography --> Oceanogr.; Crystallography --> Crystallgr.
  • Compound words can be ended using the abbreviation of the last word. e.g., Bioengineering --> Bioeng.; Nanobioscience --> Nanobiosci.
  • Some abbreviations may apply to more than one word, e.g., "Mathematical" and "Mathematics" are both abbreviated as "Math."; "Medical" and "Medicine" are both abbreviated as "Med."
  • If an abbreviation is not included and cannot be abbreviated according to the general guidelines above, please spell out the word.

Publisher Abbreviations

Conference and Conference Proceeding Abbreviations

  • Refer to section B  (pp. 6-7) of the IEEE Reference Guide 2023 for common abbreviated words used for Conference Proceedings.
  • Abbreviate common words (e.g. 'Information Science and Technology' is abbreviated to 'Infom. Sci. and Technology').
  • Abbreviate conference terms (e.g. 'International Conference' is abbreviated to 'Int. Conf'.)
  • Written numbers in the conference proceeding title are converted to numerical representation (e.g. 'Fifth Conference' is abbreviated to '5th Conf.')
  • Use acronyms in the conference title if provided (e.g. 'Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices' is abbreviated to 'NUSOD')
  • Remove articles and prepositions (e.g. 'of the', 'on') from a conference title.


Full Title: 'Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronic Devices (NUSOD)'
Abbreviated Title: 'Proc. 16th Int. Conf. NUSOD'

Theses/Dissertation Abbreviations

  • Abbreviate standard IEEE words where they appear in "Word abbreviations" (including Department names).
  • Abbreviate the name of the University only if you know the correct abbreviation.
  • Abbreviate the State for place of publication details if the work originated from United States of America.

The IEEE style does not allow for the use of secondary citations. Locate the original source of information which is cited in the work which you have read, and cite that original work.