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IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) style

The IEEE style was developed by the IEEE Standards Association. It provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards. It is widely used in electrical, electronic and computing publications.

IEEE uses a numbered system:

In-text citation:

References are indicated by the use of a number in square brackets [1] in the order of appearance in the article. 

Reference list:

Displayed at the end of the article, providing full details of all references cited in-text. References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text (not in alphabetical order).

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. Use full stops and spaces between the initials. The author's last names come after the initials.

Examples Using IEEE Style

Resource type In-text citation Reference List
Book Dolan [1] states that...

[1] C.W Dolan, The Engineering Design Challenge: A Unique Opportunity. San Rafael, CA, USA: Morgan & Claypool, 2013.

NB: Abbreviated state for USA only. Publisher's name is abbreviated according to list at

Journal article For example see [2]...

[2] M.Choucair, N. M. K Tse, M. R. Hill and J. A. Stride, "Adsorption and desorption characteristics of 3-dimensional networks of fused graphene," Surf. Sci., vol 606, no. 1-2, pp. 34-39, Jan. 2012, doi:10.1016/j.susc.2011.08.016.

NB Journal title is abbreviated according to list at

Not all Journal titles and Conference Papers have DOIs. If no DOI substitute [Online]. Available: URL

Conference Paper A recent study [3]...

[3] S. Li, M. Hedley, I. B. Collings and D. Humphrey, "Indoor positioning based on ranging offset model and learning," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Workshops (IEEE ICC 2017), Paris, France, May 21-25, 2017, pp. 1265-1270, doi: 10.1190/ICCW.2017.7962832

NB: Conference title is abbreviated.

Not all Journal titles and Conference Papers have DOIs. If no DOI substitute [Online]. Available: URL

Government Report The Chief Scientist and Engineer's report [4]... [4] M. O'Kane, "Final report of the independent review of coal seam gas activities in NSW," NSW Government Chief Scientist & Engineer, Sydney, NSW, Australia, Sept. 30, 2014. [Online]. Available:
Standard The standard [5]... [5] Methods for the analysis of zinc and zinc alloys- Determination of aluminium content - Titrimetric method, AS 1329.1-1994 (R2016), Standards Australia, Sept 19, 1994. [Online]. Available:
Website Recent news [6]... [6] Engineers Australia. "Australia gets opportunity to work on fusion project." Engineers Australia. (accessed Dec 18, 2018).

Quick guide and examples

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the IEEE referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

Parts of a citation - Book

gif of a book referenced in IEEE style

Parts of a citation - Journal article

gif of a journal article referenced in ieee style

Parts of a citation - Website

gif of a website referenced in ieee style

IEEE style guide

If you require further information, consult the IEEE Editorial Style Manual, available in PDF format.

Style manuals

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote 20 for Windows

 EndNote 20 for Mac


You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

EndNote and Mendeley training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Research Librarian for a session.

Watch these videos to give youself an idea on how to get started: