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AGLC4 Referencing

Contents created by UQ Library and used under under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Subsequent referencing

After citing a work in full the first time, you may use Ibid or n for subsequent references to the citation. For further information, see AGLC4 Rule 1.4.

A shortened version of the ibidem, ibid means 'in the same book, passage etc.'1 and should be used when referring to the immediately preceding footnote. It is not necessary to repeat the pinpoint reference where it is exactly the same, however, if you were referring to the same source but a different page than you would need to include the pinpoint.

The full AGLC4 rule on subsequent references can be found at Rule 1.4.


  1. R W Burchfield, The New Fowler's Modern English Usage (Oxford University Press, 3rd ed, 1996) 374.
  2. Ibid. 
  3. Ibid 375.

n refers the reader to to a footnote where the citation can be found in full. It is not used to refer to immediately preceding footnotes, except where the immediately preceding footnote contains multiple sources. See general Rule 1.4.1.


  1. R W Burchfield, The New Fowler's Modern English Usage (Oxford University Press, 3rd ed, 1996) 374.
  2. Terry Hutchinson, Researching and Writing in Law (Lawbook, 2nd ed, 2006) 51.
  3. Burchfield (n 1).
  4. ...
  5. Burchfield (n 1) 375.

Use MSWord's cross-reference function to add the original footnote number.

When a short title (shortened form of the title or source) is first cited it should be introduced to both the text and the footnotes. For more information and examples see AGLC4 Rule 1.4.4.

('Short Title') 


6. Smith v Jones (2009) 34 CLR 56, 58 (‘Smith’).
7. R v Wilson [2019] HCA 10, [3] (‘Wilson’).
8. Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) s 41A (‘Crimes Act’).
9. Mary Brown and Charles Roberts, ‘The Attorney General’ (2018) 6(2) UTS Law Review 18, 22.

10. Smith (n 6) 59.

11. Wilson (n 7) [6].
12. Crimes Act (n 8) s 58.
13. Brown and Roberts (n 9) 24.
14. Jane Williams, ‘Thoughts About the Constitution’ (2022) 10(1) UTS Law Review 28.
15. Robert Williams, ‘Magna Carta Revisited’ (2010) 34(3) Journal of Legal History 34, 38.
16. Albert Smith, James Baker and Anna Price, History of NSW (Routledge, 2003) 123.
17. Albert Smith, James Baker and Anna Price, History of Victoria (Routledge, 2004) 78.
18. Jane Williams (n 14) 33.
19. Smith, Baker and Price, History of NSW (n 16) 130.
20. Robert Williams (n 15) 40.
21. Brown and Roberts (n 9) 25; Jane Williams (n 14) 35.
22. Brown and Roberts (n 9) 26.
23. Department of Primary Industry, Water Rationing: A Comprehensive Survey (Final Report, 2020) 34 (‘Water Rationing’).
24. Smith, Baker and Price, History of Victoria (n 17) 80. 25. Water Rationing (n 23) 35.
26. Ibid 36.

Source: UTS Library

Adding cross-references with Microsoft Word

When you refer to a subsequent reference in your Word document you will need to add a footnote number e.g. Burchfield (n 1) 375. Unlike other footnotes in your document, these numbers will not automatically update if you add additional footnotes to your document.

Use the cross-reference feature in Word when adding the footnote number in subsequent references to avoid needing to manually update the footnote number.

  1. Place your cursor after the n
  2. Select the References toolbar and Cross Reference
  3. Reference Type should be Footnote (and untick “insert as hyperlink”)
  4. Select the footnote where you first cited the resource and select insert.
  5. Close

Word will update the cross-reference if needed if you access the print preview screen or print the document.