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Vancouver Referencing

Sources referring other sources

Source: AMA manual of style

A secondary source/indirect citation is when the ideas of one author are published in another author’s text but you have not read or accessed the original author’s work.

  • In the reference list, provide the details of the author of the work in which you found the quotation or idea - the actual source you looked at.
  • Make it clear in the text of your document that you are quoting a secondary source.
  • If possible always try and find the original work.

In-text citation:

Higgins1 discusses Newman’s research in his work ...

Clements2 quoted Chandler in his article ...

Reference list:

Editor(s) - Family name and initials, editors. Title of book. Edition (if not first) - ed. Place of publication: Publisher name; Year of publication.

  1. Higgins D. Horizons: the poetics and theory of the intermedia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press: 1984.
  1. Clements C. The facts about cocaine (drugs), Science and Children [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2010 Apr 20];44(7): 44. Available from:

Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers (2nd edition) and AMA manual of style provide detailed guidance in formatting bibliographic citations in Vancouver referencing style.