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Examples using Vancouver style

The Vancouver citation style is commonly used in medicine and science. Vancouver uses a numbered system.

In-text citation:

References are indicated by the use of a number in the order of appearance in the article. Either Arabic numbers in curved brackets () or in superscript can be used as long as it is consistent.

Direct citations: If the author’s name forms a natural part of your sentence, then the surname should be followed by the number indicating the order that it appears in the document.

Indirect Citations: If you do not mention the author’s name within your text, you should place the number outside of the sentence, after the full stop.

Reference list:

Displayed at the end of the article, providing full details of all references cited in-text. References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text (not in alphabetical order).

Use only the initials of the authors' given names. No full stop and space between the initials. Last name comes first.

Resource type In-text citation Reference list


Souza1 states that...

1. Souza TA. Differential diagnosis and management for the chiropractor. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2016.

Book Chapter

Hordern1 wrote that…

1. Hordern P. Sickness and Healing. In: Noble TFX, Smith JMH, editors. Early Medieval Christianities  c600-c1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 416-32.

Journal article

Strkalj et al2 have identified...

2. Strkalj G, Schroder T, Solyali V, Pather N. A preliminary assessment of the fifth-year chiropractic students' knowledge of anatomy. J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17(1):63-66.‚Äč


The research is supported by Gorrell3...

3. Gorrell L. The effect of manual and instrument applied cervial spine manipulation on mechanical neck pain (MNP) in adults [PhD thesis]. Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University; 2014.

Conference paper

This was amply demonstrated (4)... 

4. Engell SE, Triano JT. Paraspinal soft-tissue layer differential movement from spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) preload forces. Paper Presented: at Association of
Chiropractic Colleges Conference 2015, March, Los Angeles, United States.

Website can be found online (5)... 

5. Chiropractors’ Association of Australia. Fact Sheet: Neck Adjustments- Benefits and Safety. [Internet] 2010 [Updated 2015 Feb 15, Cited 2015 Mar 3] Available from:

Government report

NSW Health's strategic plans (6)...

6. Health System Planning and Investment. NSW State Health Plan: Towards 2021. North Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health; 2014 June 36p.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Quick guide and examples

The attached quick guides created by other institutions provide an overview of the Vancouver referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

Part of a citation - Journal article

Vancouver referencing journal article gif

Vancouver style guide

If you require further information, consult Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers. An online version of the style guide is available. Click the link above.

Style manuals

Journal title abbreviations

Journal titles in the Vancouver style are abbreviated. To locate the abbreviation of a journal title go to PubMed and click on the Journals in NCBI Databases link.

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote 20 for Windows

 EndNote 20 for Mac


You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

EndNote and Mendeley training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Research Librarian for a session.

Watch these videos to give youself an idea on how to get started: