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Chicago Referencing

Citing Reference works

  • Well-known reference books, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally only cited in the footnote and left out of the bibliography. 
  • Most other reference works are more appropriately listed with full publication details like any other book resource.
  • To cite substantial, authored entries in a reference work cite the contributions much like a multi-authored book.
  • For continually updated online resources, an edition number will usually be unnecessary. Instead, include a posted publication or revision date for the cited entry; if none is available, supply an access date. Time stamps may be included for frequently updated resources.

Elements of footnote:

Author/s (First Name Family Name), "Entry Title," in Name of Encyclopaedia, ed/s. Editor/s (First Name Last Name), Place of publication, Year, page no/URL.

Footnote:

15 C.R. Moore and M.A. Crotty, "Australian Masculinities," in International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, ed. M. Flood, J.K. Gardiner, B. Pease, and K. Pringle, London: Routledge, 2007, 32.

Subsequent Notes:

20  Moore, "Australian Masculinities."


Elements of bibliography entry:

Author/s (Family Name, First Name). "Entry Title." In Name of Encyclopaedia, edited by Editor/s (First Name Family Name). Publisher, Year. URL

Bibliography entry:

Moore, C.R. and M.A. Crotty. "Australian Masculinities." In International Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, edited by M. Flood, J.K. Gardiner, B. Pease, and K. Pringle. Routledge, 2007.

Elements of footnote:

Author/s (First Name Family Name), "Entry Title," in Name of Encyclopaedia, ed/s. Editor/s (First Name Family Name), Place of publication, Year, page no/URL.

Footnote:

16 Damian Cox, Michael Levine and Marguerite La Caze, "Integrity," in Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta. Standford University, 2017. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/integrity/.

Subsequent Notes:

22 Cox, "Integrity."


Elements of bibliography entry:

Author/s (Family Name, First Name). "Entry Title." In Name of Encyclopaedia, edited by Editor First Name Last Name. Publisher, Year. URL

Bibliography entry:

Cox, Damian, Michael Levine, and Marguerite La Caze. "Integrity." In Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta Standford University, 2001. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/integrity/

Elements of footnote:

Name of Encyclopedia or Dictionary, s.v. "Title of Entry," Date of publication, modification, or access, DOI/URL/Database.

Footnote:

15 Macquarie Dictionary, s.v. "Procrastination,"  accessed September 15, 2023, https://www-macquariedictionary-com-au.features/word/search/?search_word_type=Dictionary&word=procrastination

Subsequent Notes:

20  "Procrastination."


Elements of bibliography entry:

Well-known reference books such as major dictionaries or encyclopedias do not require full publication details and are not usually cited in bibliographies.


Notes:

  • Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited only in notes, with the edition specified but not all the publication facts. It is not necessary to list them in bibliographies. Other subject-specific and lesser-known encyclopedias and dictionaries should include publication details in both notes and bibliographic entries.
  • The abbreviation "s.v." (sub verbo, Latin for "under the word") is used to identify the article's title that is not signed.
  • If you cite an online encyclopedia or dictionary, always include an access date in addition to the short form of the URL. This is because online versions of encyclopedias are subject to continuous updates.
  • If the article you are citing was found in a database, provide the database name (e.g. Gale Virtual Reference Library) and any identification number in parentheses after the publication details.

Elements of footnote:

Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry," Date last modified, Time stamp, URL.

Footnote:

15 Wikipedia, s.v. "Marketing," November 30, 2023, 04:58, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing

Subsequent Notes:

20  "Marketing."


Elements of bibliography entry:

Wikipedia, s.v. "Title of Entry." Date last modified. Time stamp. URL.

Bibliography entry:

Wikipedia, s.v. "Marketing," November 30, 2023, 04:58, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing


Notes:

  •  Time stamp refers to the time the article was last modified. The date and time the article was last modified appear at the bottom of each Wikipedia article.
  • Keep in mind that Wikipedia is usually not considered an acceptable source for a university-level assignment. Be sure to evaluate the content carefully and check with your tutor/course convenor if you can use it as a source in your assignment.