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Chicago Referencing


  • Start on a new page.
  • Include the title Bibliography at the top of the page.
  • Order you references alphabetically by the family name of the author.
  • For multiple authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography, e.g. Smith, Adam and Charles Fishman.
  • The first line of each entry is aligned flush left and all the following lines of that entry are indented.
  • Single line space with a single line between entries.
  • Titles should be headline style. This means you capitalise the first letter of all major words in the title.
  • Change any ampersands & to the word and.
  • Place of publication is the city where the publisher's main office is located. If two places are listed, use the first listed city.
  • To cite two or more works by the same author in your bibliography, arrange entries chronologically from oldest to newest publication.
  • Personal communication is generally only included in the footnotes.
  • AI outputs.
  • Well-known reference works such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias are commonly only cited in footnotes. However it is appropriate to include them in your bibliography if they form a critical part of your research, or if they are frequently cited. Check with your lecturer if you are unsure.



Armstrong, Aurelia. "Foucault and the Question of Autonomy." Paper presented at the Australian Society for Continental Philosophy Conference, University of Queensland, St Lucia, 20 November 2003.

Jory, Patrick. "Republicanism in Thai History." In A Sarong for Clio: Essays on the Intellectual and Cultural History of Thailand, edited by Maurizio Peleggi, 97-117. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Kargon, Robert H., Karen Fiss, and Morris Low. World's Fairs on the Eve of War. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015.

McCarter, Stephanie. "Rape, Lost in Translation: How Translators of Ovid’s “Metamorphoses” Turn an Assault Into a Consensual Encounter." Electric Lit. 1 May 2018.

Rennie, Kriston. "The Normative Character of Monastic Exemption in the Early Medieval Latin West." Medieval Worlds 6 (2017): 61-77, https://doi:10.1553/medievalworlds_no6_2017s61.

White, Brett, “Control + Ethics & CSR.” MGMT1002 Principles of Management. Lecture slides. North Ryde, NSW, Australia: Macquarie University, September 30, 2023, iLearn course. 

Wu, Wenhao, and Qi He. "The Roles of Moral Disengagement and Learned Helplessness Towards International Postgraduate Students’ Academic Procrastination." Psychology Research and Behavior Management 15 (2022): 1085-1104.