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APA 7th Referencing

Reference list

  • No specific font type or size required. Recommendations include Calibri size 11, Arial size 11, Lucida size 10, Times New Roman size 12, Georgia size 11 or Computer Modern size 10 (LaTeX).
  • The reference list is double spaced (between each reference AND within the reference).
  • Each reference appears on a new line.
  • A reference list is arranged alphabetically by author family name.
  • References should not be numbered.
  • Each item in the reference list is required to have a hanging indent, e.g.
Zarate, K., Maggin, D. M., & Passmore, A. (2019). Meta‐analysis of mindfulness training on teacher well‐being. Psychology in the Schools, 56(10), 1700–1715.
  • Click on other tabs in this box for more information on each element of the reference.
  • reference list only includes the books, articles, and web pages etc that are cited in the text of the document.
  • bibliography includes all sources consulted, even if they are not cited in the document.

Check your assessment instructions as to whether you should use a reference list or a bibliography.

  • Arrange the reference list alphabetically by author family name.
  • If you have more than one item with the same author, list the items chronologically, starting with the earliest publication.
  • If a reference has no author, check whether it has been produced by an institution (company, government...). If there is no individual or institutional author, cite the work by title, and include it in the alphabetical list using the first significant word of the title.

Please refer to the Author information page for details.

  • Include year of publication in brackets.
  • Use n.d. if there is no date available.
  • Use in press when the work is accepted for publication but has not been published.
  • When the work has been published online prior to publication, include the year of when it was uploaded online. Include the phrase [Advance online publication] after the article title.
  • When a month, date or season is used, use (Year, Month Date) or (Year, Season), e.g. (2019, November 8) or (2019, Autumn/Winter).
  • If a "Last Updated" date in used, include this as the publication date. This is only when the information has been clearly changed, not just reviewed.
  • For online works that are meant to be changed regularly eg. Facebook, dictionary entry, use Retrieved Month, Date, Year, from URL, e.g. Retrieved November 8, 2019, from
  • Article or book chapter titles
    • ​use sentence case (the first word uses a capital letter with each subsequent word in lower case). The exceptions are for names, e.g., countries, people, rivers, etc., and after a colon (:) e.g., Writing prose in Australia: Words of wisdom from the best
    • do not use single or double quotation marks.
    • do not italicise.
  • Books (including when using book chapters) and report titles
    • use sentence case.
    • italicise the title.
  • Journal, magazine and newspaper titles
    • use the full journal name (not abbreviated) and use capitals where appropriate (rather than sentence case) eg. Psychological Review.
    • italicise the title.
  • Website titles should be italicised.  
  • No title
    • add a description of the reference used, including the type of reference in square brackets. For example, [Image of a child playing in outdoor playground]. 
    • For social media posts or comments without a title, add up to the first 20 words used in the post or comment and italicise it. Also include a description of the work in square brackets, e.g., On Monday and Tuesday (16-17 December) this week, we are replacing computers in the PACE Health Sciences Library [Infographic].
  • use the title in place of the author.
  • list alphabetically.
  • Use the first significant word of the title. Ignore "A", "And" and "The".


The best 10 years of Radio magazine. (2003). Radio9(9), 79.

The only 10 recipes you'll ever need. (1998). Good Housekeeping227(3).

List multiple publisher names in the order in which they appear, separated by semicolons. 

  • For publisher names, words like "Co.", "Publishers" or "Inc." should not be included, e.g. use Springer, not Springer Publishers.
  • Places of publication are not included.
  • Do not include publisher name if it is the same as the author.
  • Page numbers are included when you are referring to a section of a greater work, e.g. book chapter, journal article.
  • Use the full page range and full page numbers.
  • Use pp. for book chapter page numbers e.g., pp. 121-138 but not for journal articles, e.g. 121-138.
  • For an online publication that uses article numbers or similar, include Article then the article number in the Page Number place, e.g. Article e09645731.

URLs or DOIs can be shown either as live links (blue and underlined) or as normal black text with no underline. If the work containing the reference list is to be made available online, use the live link format.

What is a DOI (Digital Object Identifier)?

DOI (digital object identifier) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by the International DOI Foundation to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when the article is published and made available electronically.

DOI numbers start with an followed by a full stop and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organisations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards. The format for DOI in your references:

Where to find a DOI?

DOIs are usually located:

  • on the first page (abstract page) of the electronic journal article, near the copyright notice or near the author's address.
  • on the database landing page in the Full Record Display of the article with the field labelled DOI.
  • on the PDF version of an article DOIs will be located on the cover sheet, towards the top or the bottom of the article.

Can't find the DOI?

Not all publications have a DOI, and not all databases list DOIs where available. If you are unable to locate a DOI for a publication, you can use the online free DOI lookup on CrossRef. Simply enter the author’s surname along with the title of the publication in Search on article title and click "Search".

You can also find a publication by using the DOI resolver on International DOI FoundationSimply enter the DOI and click "Go".

Example reference list

Ballard, T., Yeo, G., B. Vancouver, J., & Neal, A. (2017). The dynamics of avoidance goal regulation [Advance online publication]. Motivation and Emotion, 1-10.

Brown, C. G. (2020). Ethical and legal considerations for using mind–body interventions in schools. In Promoting mind–body health in schools: Interventions for mental health professionals. (pp. 113-128). American Psychological Association.

Carson-Chahhoud, K. V., Ameer, F., Sayehmiri, K., Hnin, K., van, A. J. E., Sayehmiri, F., Brinn, M. P., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2017). Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(6).

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Beyond boredom and anxiety. Jossey-Bass. (Original work published 1975).

Dravsnik, J., Signal, T., & Canoy, D. (2018). Canine co‐therapy: The potential of dogs to improve the acceptability of trauma‐focused therapies for children. Australian Journal of Psychology, 70, 208-216.

Leigh, J. (2010). Self-determined mindfulness and attachment style in college students (Publication Number 305210119) [Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Malcolm, L. (2002-present). All in the mind [Audio podcast].

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 20, 2019, from

O’Brien, B. (2017, May 5). NVivo 11 training - full video (5/4/17) - updated [Video]. YouTube.

Office of Fair Trading. (2018, August 17). Community groups key to seniors staying engaged [Press release].

Quealy-Gainer, K. (2014, 16 April). I kill the mockingbird by Paul Acampora (review). Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books, 67(10), 494-494.

Rappaport, J., & Dubin, C. S. (1983, January 24). Say no more (Season 11, Episode 12) [Television series episode]. In B. Metcalfe, M*A*S*H. 20th Century Fox Television; CBS.

Shapiro, R. E., & Cowan, R. (2017, January 10). Key points about caffeine and migraines. American Migraine Foundation.

Siegal, Z. V., Teasdale, J. D., & Williams, G. M. G. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Theoretical rationale and empirical status. In S. C. Hayes, V. M. Follette, & M. M. Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 45-65). Guilford Publications.

Simon, P., & Garfunkel, A. (1965). The sounds of silence. On Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M. [Song]. Columbia.

U2. (1988). Rattle and hum [Album]. Island; Sun Studio; Point Depot; Danesmoat; STS Studio; A&M Studios; Ocean Way.

University of Queensland Library [@UQ_Library]. (2017, October 4). Turtles down by UQ St Lucia lakes today. Air conditioned library or enjoying the sun and the view - tough choice! [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

University of Queensland Library. (2017, October 4). The winners of the 2017 Queensland Literary Awards will be revealed at tonight’s ceremony. Good luck to all shortlisted writers! [Status update]. Facebook.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010a). Dynamic range control for audio signals using fourth-order level estimation [Paper presentation]. 129th Audio Engineering Society Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Yang, Q., & Harris, J. G. (2010b). A higher-order spectro-temporal integration model for predicting signal audibility [Paper presentation]. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Dallas, TX. 

Zachary, K. C. (2018). Treatment of seasonal influenza in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 3, 2018, from