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Referencing

Chicago (Turabian) style

The Chicago Style was developed by the University of Chicago. It presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography and author-date. Please check your unit guide to see which system is required.

In-text citation

  • Notes-bibliography consists of two parts: a number in the text and a note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Notes are numbered sequentially beginning with 1., throughout each article, chapter, or paper. The numbers in the text must be in superscript and should follow the punctuation. The note should have a normal, full-sized number.
  • Author-date consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work cited. No punctuation is used between the name and the date.

Reference list

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Book example

In-text citation (note-bibliography)

Reference list

(intext number ) .....1    

(footnote) 1. Colin Neville, Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. (New York: Open University Press, 2010), 25.

Neville, Colin. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press, 2010.

Book example

In-text citation (author-date)

Reference list

(Neville 2010, 25)

Neville, Colin. 2010. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Quick guides and the full guide

Chicago Style Guide