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Referencing generative AI (e.g. ChatGPT)

When generative artificial intelligence (such as ChatGPT) is permitted in your units, you should act with academic integrity and reference any such tools you have used.

Academic libraries across Australia currently suggest two possible referencing strategies for these tools: non-recoverable sources or software.

  • Non-recoverable sources: if the content cannot be saved or a similar search would generate a different result, then the content should be treated as a non-recoverable source, such as a personal communication (see examples from University of Queensland Library following this approach).
  • Software and apps: if a search strategy can be saved or search terms/prompts can be listed, reference the output under software (see examples from University of Wollongong Library following this approach).

Decide which of these strategies matches your needs and use the closest format within your required citation style.

We recommend checking back regularly for updates.

Last updated 24 Feb 2023

Chicago (Turabian) style

The Chicago Style was developed by the University of Chicago. It presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography and author-date. Please check your unit guide to see which system is required.

In-text citation

  • Notes-bibliography consists of two parts: a number in the text and a note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Notes are numbered sequentially beginning with 1., throughout each article, chapter, or paper. The numbers in the text must be in superscript and should follow the punctuation. The note should have a normal, full-sized number.
  • Author-date consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work cited. No punctuation is used between the name and the date.

Reference list

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered in the reference list alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Book example

In-text citation (note-bibliography)

Reference list

(intext number ) .....1    

(footnote) 1. Colin Neville, Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. (New York: Open University Press, 2010), 25.

Neville, Colin. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press, 2010.

Book example

In-text citation (author-date)

Reference list

(Neville 2010, 25)

Neville, Colin. 2010. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Quick guides and the full guide

Chicago Style Guide

Available online from the Library.

Style guides provide detailed advice on referencing plus much more, such as writing and publishing in your discipline.