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Chicago (Turabian) style

The Chicago Style was developed by the University of Chicago. It presents two basic documentation systems: notes-bibliography and author-date. The notes-bibliography system is used by mainly by humanities, including those in literature, history and the arts. The author-date system is preferred by those in the physical, natural, and social sciences.

In-text citation:

Notes-bibliography consists of two parts: a number in the text and a note either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote). Notes are numbered sequentially beginning with 1., throughout each article, chapter, or paper. The numbers in the text must be in superscript and should follow the punctuation. The note should have a normal, full sized number.

Author-date consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work cited. No punctuation is used between the name and the date.

Reference list:

The reference list should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author of each work. References with no author are ordered in the reference list  alphabetically by the first significant word of the title.

Here is an example that cites a book with one author using Chicago style.

In-text citation (note-bibliography)

Reference list

.....1     1.Colin Neville, Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. (New York: Open University Press, 2010), 25.

.....12   12. Neville, Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 5

Neville, Colin. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press, 2010.

In-text citation (author-date)

Reference list

(Neville 2010, 25)

Neville, Colin. 2010. The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. 2nd ed. New York: Open University Press.

Interactive referencing tools

The interactive tools below, created by other libraries, are designed to provide you with examples of referencing for a range of resources. You will access these references by selecting from the menus until you get to the detailed information.

Quick guides and examples

The attached quick guides were created by other institutions and provide an overview of the Chicago 16 referencing style. In these documents you will find examples for different types of materials and details on specific variations of citations.

Chicago style guide

If you require further information, consult The Chicago manual of style. A printed copy of this guide is available at the Library. An online version of the style guide is also available.

Style manuals

Bibliographic management software

Macquarie University has licences for two bibliographic management software packages:

 EndNote 20 for Windows

 EndNote 20 for Mac


You can use these Bibliographic referencing tools to maintain your references. They can also create bibliographies automatically in Word.

EndNote and Mendeley training is available for current postgraduates, higher degree researchers and staff.

You can contact your Research Librarian for a session.

Watch these videos to give youself an idea on how to get started: