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EndNote 20 for Mac

How to modify the output style

  1. In the Output Style Box, select the style you wish to edit, eg Harvard.
  2. Go to Tools > Output Styles > Select Edit [chosen style] eg Edit Harvard. 
  3. Alternatively go to Tools > Output Styles > Open Style Manager > Highlight the style you wish to modify > Edit.

Tip! Find a style to modify that is as close to the style you need to use.

Modify the settings for punctuation, anonymous works, page numbers, journal name and sections after 'About this Style' in the left hand panel. For example:

  • Page numbers: How should the page numbers display? eg 123-125; 123-25; 123-5, etc.

  • Journal names: Does the style require full journal name or an abbreviated version?

Note: You need to have imported term lists if you wish to use an abbreviated version.

  • Sections: Choose to set a bibliography after each section or just one bibliography at the end of your document.

Select Templates under Citations to modify the display of in-text citations. Make your edits as needed, eg delete the commas.

Note: Take care not to delete the special separators such as | and the link text diamond shape within the round brackets. 

Select Templates under Bibliography to modify the full reference style for the references/ bibliography. Here you can:

  • Edit punctuation format: Place your cursor where you want to add or remove punctuation marks. Make your edits, taking care not to delete separators, eg change full-stops to commas; add inverted commas.

  • Modify font formatting: Highlight what you would like to change and modify the font, eg highlight 'Conference Name' and go to Edit > Font > Italic to change conference names to appear in italics.


Add additional fields via the Insert Field function, for example an Issue: 

  • Place your cursor where you wish to add the facet, eg after Volume|
  • Go to Insert Field > select the facet eg Issue.
  • Leave your cursor where it is. Then go to Insert Field > | Forced Separation.
  • Add a space between the separator and the new field.
  • Edit punctuation & formatting if required eg a comma after the field; un-bold.

Add adjacent words, eg vol. or no. in front of the volume & issue numbers: 

  • Place your cursor where you wish to add the adjacent words.
  • Go to Insert Field > Link Adjacent. A tiny diamond symbol will appear where your cursor is located.
  • Type the words next to the diamond eg vol. or no.. Edit formatting if required. 

Change other formatting settings for the full reference style if necessary. For instance, you could change:

  • Author Names and Editor Names: Eg All caps, small caps or normal? The first author set out as 'First name, Last name'? Initials punctuated differently, eg AB instead of A.B.? 
  • Author Lists and Editor Lists: Do you want all authors listed or after a certain number, eg for10 authors or editors, have et al. at the end?
  • Title Capitalisation: Format the case of the title, eg headline style, sentence style, or leave titles as you have entered or exported them.

Save by selecting File > Save As, renaming it to distinguish it from the style you based it on, then Save.

Go to 'Select Another Style...' in your Output Styles drop-down box to add your new or modified style to your Output Styles shortlist.

Why modify?

You would need to modify an EndNote style:

  • If EndNote does not have your style (first see if it's available in Downloads - EndNote Output Styles)
  • If the style that EndNote does have is a little different to the version your unit or journal requires.

For example, you wish to change EndNote's Harvard style from looking like:

MOREHOUSE, S. I. & TUNG, R. S. 1993. Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event. Journal of Paleontology, 17, 198-209.


Morehouse, SI & Tung, RS 1993, 'Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event', Journal of Paleontology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 198-209.

Modifying Reference Types and Output Styles